Was there life before computer?

calculating instruments before the digital era


On this page I list, in random order, all the links that I have visited and from which I got interesting informations or pictures. I hope I have not forgotten anyone. I tried always to quote the origin of the material used and in general I asked permission to use it, though sometime was not possible, and in any case I wrote the name of the author and the link to his personal website directly below the photo and the article concerned or in this page. I tried to locate the rights holders, with cross search and/or follow the links in the source page, and if the owner's name is not present you must consider the author as unknown to me.

If someone noticed that, unbeknownst to me, there is in my website some copyrighted material is invited to send me an email at info@nicolamarras.it so I can properly cite the intellectual property or remove it: my intention is to apply all the rules in force on the legal protection of intellectual property.

John Wolff di "John Wolff's Web Museum": home.vicnet.net.au~wolff
Gonzalo Martin di "Photocalcul": www.photocalcul.com
Mike Konshak dell'International Slide Rule Museum: sliderulemuseum.com
Jorge Fabregas Zazza di "Reglas de Calculo": www.reglasdecalculo.com
I membri di ARC, foro spagnolo dei regoli calcolatori: arc.reglasdecalculo.org
Lo staff di Giocomania: www.giocomania.org
Lo staff di Matematicamedie: matematicamedie.blogspot.com
History of Computers: history-computer.com
Retrocalculators: retrocalculators.com
The Museum of HP Calculators: www.hpmuseum.org
xnumber: www.xnumber.com
Computer History Museum: www.computerhistory.org
Museo Galileo di Firenze: www.museogalileo.it
Stephan Weiss: www.mechrech.info
James Ollinger: www.jollinger.com
Early Office Museum: www.officemuseum.com
Gilai Colletibles: www.gilai.com
David's Calculating Sticks: www.sliderules.nl
Aldo Cavini Benedetti: aldoaldoz.blogspot.it
Reinhard Atzbach: www.rechenwerkzeug.de
Alessandro Palladino: www.john-silver.it
Ezio Raddi: ezioraddi.altervista.org
David M. Riches: www.mathsinstruments.me.uk
Nico Baaijens: www.novosite.nl
Kees Nagtegaal: www.mechanicalculator.com
James Ollinger: www.jollinger.com
ASA: www.asa2fly.com
The Oughtred Society: www.oughtred.org
Casio: www.casio-europe.com/it
Andries de Man: sites.google.com/site/calculatinghistory
Rechnerlexikon: www.rechnerlexikon.de
Rechenmaschinen Illustrated: www.rechenmaschinen-illustrated.com
Nathan Zeldes: www.nzeldes.com
Slide Rule Universe: www.sphere.bc.ca
Rod Lovett: sliderules.lovett.com
Eric Marcotte: www.sliderule.ca
Christophe Mery: machineacalculer.free.fr
Clark McCoy: www.mccoys-kecatalogs.com
Office Colletibles: www.prehistoriadelainformatica.com
Daniel Toussaint: www.linealis.org
Mystery of the beed: webhome.idirect.com/~totton/abacus
Progetto Polymath: www.polito.it
Associazione Archivio Storico Olivetti: www.arcoliv.org
Wikipedia: www.wikipedia.org
Mateureka: www.mateureka.it
Ugo Mainieri: www.mainieri.eu
Ing.Giovanni Pastore: www.giovannipastore.it
Giovanni Breda: www.gbreda.it

Does not exist only the Web, I also consulted books and magazines:

A.A. Computing Before Computers. Iowa State University Press, 1990
Bitto, Diana. Alla radice degli strumenti di calcolo. Università di Udine, ?
Bonfanti, Corrado. Storia dell'informatica. UNIUD, 2007-8
Bagni, Giorgio. L'arte dell'abbacho. Fondazione Cassamarca, 1995
Brini, Daniele. Elementi di calcolo meccanico. Edizioni Calderini, 1969
Brunetti, Franz. Le operazioni del compasso di Galileo Galilei. U.T.E.T. 1980
Cabizza, Gian Nicola. Il calcolatore di Antikythera, ?
Cajori, Florian. A history of the logarithmic Slide Rule. Astragal Press, 1994
Casson, Lionel. Navi e marinai dell'antichità. Mursia, 1976
de Médine, Pierre. L'art de naviguer. Guillame Roville,1554
Di Franco, Francesco. Manuale di navigazione astronomica. Mursia, 1974
Di Santo, Michele. Storia dell'Informatica. Università del Sannio, 2007
Galilei, Galileo. Le operazioni del compasso. Francesco Agnelli MDCCXLL
Graziani & Sangoi. La macchina aritmetica di Blaise Pascal
Helfand, Jessica. Reinventing the Wheel. Princeton Architectural press, 2002
Hopp, Peter M. Slide Rules. Astragal Press, 1999
Ifland, Peter. Taking the Stars. Krieger Publishing, 1998
Jouenne, Nöel. La règle à Calcul: extintion programmée, ?
Konshak, Mike. A seminar on How to use the slide rule. sliderulemuseum
Lalanne, Léon. Abaque ou compteur universel. Hachette, 1851
Lepschy, Antonio. La "Machina Aritmetica" di Poleni
Linklater, Andro. Misurare l'America. Garzanti, 2004
Lumpkin, Beatrice. African and African-American Contribution to Mathematics. Portland public school, 1987
Marguin, Jean. Histoire des instruments et machines à calculer. Hermann, ?
Martin, Ernst. The calculating machines. The Charles Babbage Institute, 1992
Martin, Gonzalo. Regles à Calcul pour l'Alcool. www.photocalcul.com
Martin, Gonzalo. Carpenter's Slide Rule. www.photocalcul.com
Mc Leod, T.H. A treatise on the slide rule. George Smith, 1846
Morris, Alan. Slide Rule Accuracy Versus Precision
Orton, Hoy. Orton & Sadler's Business calculator. W.H. Sadler, 1897
Pasquale, Joe. The slide rule - Calculating by mind and hand
Poole, Reginald. The exchequer in the twelfth century. Oxford, 1911
Rance, David. Reckon on it! 15th Int. Meeting of Slide Rule Collectors, 2009
Rizzo, Ottavio. Ruote cifranti. Università di Milano, ?
Russo, A. Thomas. Antique Office Machines. Schiffer Publishing, 2001
Saladino, Lucia. Nuova guida per l'uso del regolo calcolatore. F. Manini, 1942
Salmeri, Antonio. Regoli e Nomografia. Su "Le Scienze", luglio 2006
Stanley, Philip E. A Source Book for Rule Collectors. Astragal Press, 2003
Stoll, Cliff. When the slide rules ruled. Su "American Scientific", maggio 2006
Vacca, Roberto. Come imparare più cose e vivere meglio. A.M.E., 1981
van Herwijnen, Herman. Slide Rule Catalogue. Otto van Poelje, 2005
Von Jezierski, Dieter. Slide Rules. Astragal Press, 2000
van Poelje, Otto. The Demise of the Slide Rule. www.rekeninstrumenten.nl
Weiss, Stephan. Non-decimal Slide Adders and the Carry. Weiss, 2009

© Götz-Kenner

- It's called "book". It can be read without the need for a screen. The pages are all accessible and do not disappear in case of lack of batteries. Is lighter than a laptop. It will not be obsolete next month and you can even lend it to your father without explain how to use it.

Nicola Marras 2008 - 2019


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