Was there life before computer?

calculating instruments before the digital era


The book


The whole history of the calculators shown in a simple and appealing way? I hope I succeeded with this free publication.

Download Was There Life Before Computer in pdf

The cover



Contents

Introduction

pag.   5 .... Before the computer
         6 .... Digital and analog
         6 .... Reading the displays
         7 .... The non-decimal systems

Digital calculators before the digital era

       10 .... The beginning of the calculus and the abacus
       12 .... The first calculators
       13 .... Wilhelm Schickard
       13 .... Blaise Pascal
       15 .... The single column pascaline
       16 .... How to calculate in single column
       17 .... Leibniz and followers
       19 .... Willgodt Odhner
       20 .... Perrault and the aritmographs
       20 .... Multiplication tables
       22 .... The Consul Monkey
       23 .... Felt and the full keyboard
       24 .... The modern keyboard
       24 .... The printers
       25 .... The direct multiplication
       26 .... Capellaro, Olivetti and the Divisumma
       27 .... The end of an era

Scientific calculators in the analog era

       30 .... Galileo's compass
       31 .... Logarithms and Gunter's Scale
       32 .... The slide rule
       34 .... The basis of the slide rule
       35 .... Slide Rule - Examples to practice
       37 .... The Abaques
       38 .... Calculating with the Abaques
       39 .... The nomography
       40 .... Calculating with the nomography
       41 .... Nomography - Examples to practice
       43 .... Volvelles and slide charts
       45 .... The scuba diving slide rules
       46 .... The flight computer
       48 .... Calculating with the flight computer
       50 .... The navigation with the flight computer
       52 .... The electric slide rule
       54 .... The twilight of the analog era
       57 .... Conclusions
       58 .... The Old Calculators & Democracy project
       59 .... Thanks
       60 .... Bibliography
       62 .... The Teaching Aids
       62 .... Copyright

Plato said: "Mathematics is like a game of checkers: suitable for young people, not too difficult, amusing and without any danger", so have fun.




Nicola Marras 2008 - 2017

      

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